Nature #08: Climate

This Friday, the 28th, we are going to take a tour of our world, more specifically talking about the climate. And, talking about climate is also talking about human behavior and how we can contribute to mitigate the effects of disastrous actions that will turn against us unless we take the appropriate action. Check it out in full! 🙂

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

The reports of the AgĂȘnia FAPESP, report that the effects of climate change already perceived and felt in several countries and regions of the world, including Brazil. It is essential that governments begin to implement measures in a urgent to mitigate the vulnerability of their populations and economic sectors to the variations that are occurring in the climate.

According to the researchers, these climatic phenomena that are already part of daily life in our country, as well as in all others, serve to help understand climate variations and also as a stimulus for nations to adopt measures of most striking adaptation.

Brazil has implemented a subsistence agriculture program in the Northeast, aiming to improve plants that can be adapted to climate change and has been striving to conserve its main ecosystems, such as the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, through the implementation of biological corridors .

Temperature Nature Clima do Globo
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

The first step for adaptation is to reduce the fragility of exposure to the climate at present. Incredible as Brazil may seem, it is already doing its part, albeit slowly. The population in the Northeast is frequently affected by drought, a problem that is unfortunately part of the history of the Northeastern people.

However, some measures to reverse this situation are being adopted in this region, such as: the construction of cisterns to accumulate rainwater. The problem is that, when the drought continues for a long time, as has been happening in the region, in particular, in recent years it has become impractical to accumulate water, for obvious reasons.

Poverty alleviation

According to the researchers who wrote the report of AgĂȘncia FAPESP, the ability to adapt to climate change in the countries of South America and Central America in recent years has improved, largely due to initiatives taken by some nations. Poverty reduction was yet another cause for improving the climate.

Climate Temperature of Planet Earth
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

It must be borne in mind that socioeconomic conditions in South and Central America have taken a new direction, albeit in a slow but significant way, since the publication in 2007 of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), highlight the researchers.

However, as in everything in life alongside improvements, we still face undesirable situations, such as: a high and constant level of poverty and socioeconomic inequality in most countries in the two regions mentioned above, which has the consequence of the difficulty of access to drinking water, basic sanitation and decent housing, with emphasis on the less favored population.

Nature Climate Globe Temperature

Such set of factors contributes to the minimum capacity of adaptation to the climatic changes of these populations, as the report indicates. Rainfall, according to studies, should decrease at alarming rates, that is, the situation is extremely worrying. In the Northeast of Brazil they are expected to decrease by 22% and, between 22% to 7% in Central America, in 2100.

At the same time, periods of drought in the tropical region of South America and the eastern Andes, as well as the frequency of hot days and nights in most regions of South America.

Some possible impacts of these climate changes in the two regions will result in the extinction of habitats and important species, mainly in the tropical region of Latin America.

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

There will be a replacement of tropical forests by savannas and semi-arid vegetation by arid, an increase in the number of people in situations of water stress (with water scarcity), and an increase in pests in agricultural crops and diseases, such as dengue and malaria in populations. .

Conclusion: we must consciously mobilize to reverse this situation and the best way to do so is to start treating nature with the love and respect it deserves.

Changes in land use

According to researchers, changes in land use in the most affected regions, that is, those that are the most degraded in the face of constant deforestation and environmental degradation, have contributed significantly to worsening the negative impacts on the environment, generating negative climate changes.

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

Although deforestation rates in the Amazon have decreased, according to studies, substantially since 2004 to an average of 4,656 square kilometers in 2012, regions such as the Brazilian Cerrado still have high rates of deforestation, with average rates of 14. 179 kilometers squares per year in the period between 2002 and 2008, according to the report.

The increase in carbon dioxide emissions, generated by the burning of fossil fuel, further increases the risk of severe climate change. The very high levels of deforestation, as well as soil degradation observed in most countries in the region, are attributed, in large part, to the expansion of extensive and intensive agriculture so that the growing world demand for food can be met.

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

In the assessment of our researchers, authors of the aforementioned report, one of the noticeable changes in the IPCC Fifth Report in relation to AR4, is the focus on adaptation and mitigation.

For each projection of climate change for different parts of the world, which are part of the report, there are indications of adaptation and mitigation actions, highlighted Marcos Buckeridge, professor at the Biosciences Institute of the University of SĂŁo Paulo (USP) and one of the authors of the chapter 27 of the report, on the impacts of climate change in South and Central America.

As highlighted in the IPCC report, the trends are for an increase in global temperature, an increase and decrease in rainfall (rain), environmental degradation, risk to coastal areas, and marine fauna, changes in agricultural productivity, among others.

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

The big question mark is about the results of the actions aimed at improving climatic conditions, because each action depends on the place and the context, that is, what can give a good result in one sector, can result in a poor result in another.

Take the Northeast of the country as an example. The construction of cisterns can be a start to minimize the effects of drought. However, this work cannot be permeated by sparse actions and over long periods, but in a constant and permanent way, a goal to be pursued in a systematic way.

We also have the forecast of an increase in lightning in 50%, given the climate change. A study by American scientists, published in the journal Science, suggests that climate change will increase the occurrence of lightning by the end of this century. The analysis is based on measurements of precipitation and cloud buoyancy, applied to different climatic models that estimate the temperature rise on the planet until 2100.

Lightning incidence

Nature Climate Globe Temperature
Image / Reproduction: National Geographic

Brazil, occupies the 1st place in the incidence of lightning, with 57.8 million occurrences per year, followed by the Democratic Republic of Congo, with 43.2 million. In the end, we have to reflect, in what world we want to continue living, because, for all that scientists and researchers demonstrate, there is still time to save the planet and reverse the climate situation, as long as each of us does our part. , taking care of our “square”, our little piece of ground, not dumping waste and garbage on the beaches, in the rivers.

In addition, it is also found in forests, preserving forests, respecting the land, with conscious agriculture, respecting animals (marine life is the great victim of the unbridled race for wealth on the seabed), not wasting water, nor the foods. Guys, let's all stop, think and move on, but taking care of this great treasure that we have in our hands, which is our great mother nature.

We ended our great adventure here ... Until next time! 😉

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Next episode: Nature #09: Mountains

My name is Sonia Maria, I am from Rio, with great pride, lawyer, businesswoman. In my spare time I love reading good books, dancing, traveling, dating. And I am a very obstinate person, I know how to be patient, in fact, patience is essential so that we do not give up on our goals.